Figure out if you are being scammed and what to do about different types of scams.

Figure out if you are being scammed

Use these questions to help figure out if you have been targeted by a scammer.

Scammers are using COVID-19 as a front for scams

This page provides more on how to stay safe from scams generally so you know what to look out for.

The website has some helpful links to other government resources to help you recognise and stay safe from scams.

Misinformation and scams(external link) — Unite against COVID-19

Has someone contacted you unexpectedly?

Most scams start with an approach through contact you weren’t expecting. If someone contacts you out of the blue – whether over the phone, through the post, by email, on a website, in person or on social media – always consider the possibility that it may be a scam.


Have they promised you something?

Scammers offer exciting advantages to get you interested. They promise things like easy money, great bargains, inside knowledge or a caring relationship.



Have they asked you to do something?

Scams eventually lead to a request for money or personal information. Scammers ask you to do things like enter details on a website, answer questions in a survey, or pay upfront for what they have promised.

If you think you’re caught in a scam, click on the situation that seems most like what’s happening for advice on what to do.

Someone is asking me to...

Pay in iTunes or other store vouchers

Gift cards or iTunes vouchers are a common currency for scammers. Scammers can contact you pretending to be from a government department, law firm, telco or other trusted business, suggesting an urgent payment needs to be made using iTunes or other vouchers in exchange for solving an issue. It can be to cover a tax, fine, legal fees, bills or any other costs. Scammers usually put some pressure on you, saying that you or somebody from your family might face criminal charges, lose immigration visa, or employment status. After the vouchers or cards have been purchased they will ask you for the voucher codes that they later on sell online at discount prices.

To avoid gift card or voucher scams, remember:

  • Government departments or private business never demand payment in iTunes vouchers, supermarket vouchers, or other kinds of gift cards.
  • If you receive a call from a business or government department or business informing you that something will happen unless you make an immediate payment you can hang up and search their Customer Service number on Google or in the phone book – they will have a record of what you may or may not owe them.

Pay in advance for something, eg a prize, holiday, large pay-out or exciting advantage

Advance fee fraud is when someone asks you to pay a fee in order to get something valuable. Promises made in this kind of scam can include inheritance payments, overseas trips, job offers or cars. But any kind of offer that seems enticing and is made by someone you don’t know, could be the beginning of advance fee fraud. The scammer will take your payment and never deliver what was promised. Sometimes advance fee fraudsters will say a number of payments are needed to release your prize, but the promised prize does not exist.

If you have given money to an advance fee scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • contact your bank or the institution you sent money through
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid advance fee fraud:

  • do not pay money to someone you don’t know well — or haven’t met in person.
  • See an example of advance fee fraud on our case studies page.

Case studies

Give them remote access to my computer

A remote access or technical support scam is when someone offers to fix a problem with your computer by connecting to it. This might be via an unexpected phone call or fake online advertisement. They will often claim your computer has a virus or internet issue, and ask you to provide login details or direct you to a website. Then they search your computer for personal information, which could be used to steal money or commit identity fraud. A scammer with access to your computer can also monitor your online activity to discover internet banking passwords or government service logins.

If you have given remote access to your computer:

  • shut down your computer
  • phone your bank
  • do not use your computer until it has been cleaned by a technician
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid remote access scams:

  • do not engage with anyone who offers to fix your computer or install software
  • contact a reputable listed technician if you need help with your computer
  • use different passwords for different online accounts and consider two factor authentication.

See CERT NZ’s website for more on two factor authentication.

Simple steps to cyber security(external link) – CERT NZ

See an example of a technical support scam on our case studies page.

Case studies

Enter details into a website I’ve been directed to

Phishing is when you are sent an email or text by someone claiming to be from a bank, other financial institution or government agency. They urge you to click on links and enter personal and financial details into fake websites that look like the real thing. Your details can be used by scammers to spend or steal your money.

Banks will never contact you by email to confirm personal or financial information.

If you have given information in a phishing scam:

  • alert your bank
  • use the bank or agency’s official website to change any passwords entered on the fake site — find the official site using a Google search or by checking your bank card or statement
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid phishing scams:

  • don’t click on links in emails claiming to be from a bank, other financial institution or government agency
  • if you need to contact your bank or a government agency, use the official phone number or website.

See a phishing scam example on our case studies page.

Case studies

Pay upfront for an unexpected offer, eg a product, experience or membership

An upfront payment scam is similar to advance fee fraud, where you are asked to pay for something in advance. This can include goods or services at bargain prices. Sometimes a scammer will say this deal is available for a very limited time to make you act fast.

If you have given money to an upfront payment scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid upfront payment scams:

  • be cautious whenever goods, services or experiences are advertised at a price that seems much less than their value
  • check for seller feedback if shopping online.

See an example of an upfront payment scam on our case studies page.

Case studies

Invest money after approaching me about a scheme, property, managed fund or business venture

Finance and investment frauds come in many forms. A scammer will approach you unexpectedly with an investment product or opportunity that promises great returns. Often their website, references and materials look like the real thing. Investment scammers produce fake financial reports, forged share certificates and glossy initial public offerings to convince people to give significant amounts of money.

It’s illegal to sell financial products through a cold call in New Zealand. If you’re contacted in this way, it’s likely to be a scam.

If you have given money to an investment or finance scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • do not make any more payments
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid finance and investment scams:

  • invest in businesses regulated in New Zealand
  • get financial advice before making any investments, and don’t be pressured into a quick decision
  • follow advice from the Financial Markets Authority on ways to protect yourself.

Safe investment tips(external link) - Financial Markets Authority

See an example of an investment scam on our case studies page.

Case studies

Buy cryptocurrency, eg bitcoin, ethereum

Buying cryptocurrencies or using crypto-exchanges can put you at higher risk of being the target of a scam or fraud.

Scammers promote cryptocurrency sale and exchange as a way to catch you in phishing scams, upfront payment scams, and various forms of finance and investment fraud.

Cryptocurrency is also used in a new wave of Ponzi and pyramid schemes. In these scams, it can seem like the value of your currency is growing when it’s not. What looks like a return on investment is actually money from joining fees charged to other people who think they are buying cryptocurrency. Beware of false reassurance from people you know — your friend, family member, neighbour or co-worker may be caught in a scam without realising it.

If you have given money to a cryptocurrency scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • do not make any more payments
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid scams related to cryptocurrency:

  • take time to research any investment opportunities you’re considering
  • be sceptical if someone offers — or says they get — high returns for little risk
  • follow advice from the Financial Markets Authority.

Ways to invest – Financial Markets Authority(external link)

See CERT NZ’s(external link) website to learn about keeping your cryptocurrency safe.

Pay an invoice sent via email or letter

An invoice scam asks you to pay an invoice, which a scammer might claim is overdue. This can be easy to spot if the invoice is unrelated to your life, but scammers can go to great lengths to find out which services you use. Then they create an imitation invoice that looks like a real one, but with different payment details.

If you have paid a fraudulent invoice:

  • contact the police
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid invoice scams:

  • communicate with service providers and tradespeople in person where possible
  • be wary of any changes to agreed payment processes
  • phone the service provider on a number you have used before the invoice arrived to check any changes to their bank account or preferred payment method.

See an invoice scam example on our case studies page.

Case studies

Provide details for a survey

Scams are often connected. If someone asks you to participate in an unexpected survey, they could be trying to gather information they can use to build your trust during a future scam.

See an example of survey information being used in a scam on our case studies page.

Case studies

Enter your credit card details, account number or PIN

Phishing scams, attempts at identity theft, and fake websites are all scams that could ask for credit card or banking details. There is potential risk whenever you enter your credit card number online. Scammers have been known to create online shopping websites that look legitimate. After you pay by credit card, your order is never delivered and you can’t get your money back.

Fake website scams can take time to reveal themselves because an agreed delivery time passes before you get suspicious. Scammers also imitate charities that carry out donation campaigns on the streets to trick people into giving money or credit card details.

If you have given financial details in a scam:

  • cancel your credit card
  • change your online banking password.

To avoid giving financial details to a scam:

  • only enter your credit card details on a website if you are certain it’s legitimate. 

See our advice on reducing your scam risk for more tips.

Reduce your risk

Pay to recover money lost in a scam

A recovery scam is when a victim of a scam is targeted again — this time by someone claiming they can recover lost funds for a fee. If you have sent money overseas, it’s not uncommon for a fake enforcement agency to offer to get it back if you pay them a percentage. These offers are not genuine.

If you have given money to a recovery scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • contact the police.

To avoid recovery scams:

  • ignore anyone who claims they have special knowledge of how to recover funds lost in a scam.

See a recovery fee scam example on our case studies page.

Case studies

Start a friendship or relationship

Affinity scams or romance scams rely on your good nature to build a relationship before asking for money or involving you in crime without your knowledge. This scam usually arrives by email, in social media or through online dating. Scammers may use fake photos and claim to be from New Zealand or working overseas. Successful scammers are good at convincing you. They ask questions about what you want in your life. They will be thoughtful, caring and looking for a soul mate. Once the relationship is established, they ask for money or ask you to handle accounts for them.

Non-complicit mule scams ask you to receive and move money or contraband, eg stolen goods. If you’re asked to set up a bank account for someone you met online, there’s a high chance they plan to use you as a money mule. In this scam, you’re asked to receive money from someone who says the funds are coming from a business venture. This is not true. Money mule scams use trusting people to receive the proceeds of other scams, then transfer the money on to the scammer.

If you have given or received money in this kind of scam:

  • contact your bank or the institution you sent or received money through
  • contact the police
  • report the scam to Netsafe.

To avoid affinity scams:

  • confirm the identity of the person building a relationship with you — asking for a photo is not enough because these can be fake. 

Our reducing risk page has tips on checking an online contact’s identity.

Reduce your risk

See our case studies page to learn more about affinity scams.

Case studies

Pay them after responding to my advert

There are many different types of advance payment and advance fee scams. Sometimes a scammer will fake an interest in an advert to trick money out of the person who listed it. Common targets for this scam are people who advertise for flatmates or sell something online. The scammer will give a reason why they can’t meet the ad’s exact terms, and will promise to pay more if you can cover a cost for them in the short term. After you pay, the scammer either asks for more or won’t respond to contact.

Scammers responding to advertisements can also attempt to use you as a money mule. They deliberately overpay you for something, then ask you to refund them the overpaid amount. The initial payment was actually made by the victim of another scam, and the money you send back to the scammer are proceeds of this crime.

If you have given money to this kind of scam:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • contact your bank or the institution you sent money through
  • report the scam to Netsafe, who can advise you on what to do next.

To avoid advance payment scams:

  • always get references or check buyer feedback when you consider people who reply to ad listings.

See our case studies page for an example of an advance payment scam.

Case studies

Take a job where I receive money, keep a portion and send the rest

Money mule scams ask you to receive and move money or contraband, eg stolen goods. Money in these scams is often the proceeds of crime. One common scam is to list job vacancies where potential employees are promised they can work from home and make easy money.

If you have accepted a job like this:

  • stop all contact with the scammer
  • contact the police.

To avoid unknowingly becoming involved in crime as a money mule:

  • don’t accept work that involves receiving and transferring money 
  • carefully research any employers offering this kind of work.

There are serious consequences for money mules so remember, if the offer is too good to be true, it probably is.

How to protect yourself

  • A legitimate company will not ask you to use your own bank account to transfer their money. Do not accept any job offers that ask you to do this.
  • Be wary when an employer asks you to form a company in order to open up a new bank account.
  • Never give your financial details to someone you don’t know and trust, especially if you met them online.
  • Be wary when job advertisements are poorly written with grammatical errors and spelling mistakes.
  • Be suspicious when a love interest you met online wants to use your bank account for receiving and forwarding money.
  • Search online for all the companies or individuals named in the solicitation emails and contacts. Check if the individuals or company are registered on the Companies Register(external link) .
  • Ask the employer to send you a copy of their licence/permit to conduct business in New Zealand.

Find out more about money mule scams(external link) — The Commission for Financial Capability (CFFC)

Read examples of money mule scams on our case studies page: 

Case studies

If you have given money or personal information to a scammer:

  • stop all contact with them immediately
  • contact your bank or the institution you sent money through
  • report the scam to Netsafe and follow their advice.

The first thing to do if you discover you’re being scammed is stop all contact with the scammer.

Take care

It’s important to be suspicious because scammers have ways of making their offers seem real.

Beware of the false sense of reassurance that can come from tricks like these:

Scammers can convincingly imitate the logos and communication style of trusted companies. They are known to make fake websites, ID badges, letterheads and other materials to fool people into giving money or information. Just because the opportunity looks legitimate, doesn’t mean it is.

Scams can come from within New Zealand. International scammers also use fake location data to appear as if they are in your city or country. An opportunity isn’t necessarily safe just because someone uses a local telephone number, contact address or a .nz domain name.

Scammers can learn private details through computer hacking or by taking mail from your letterbox. They use this information to build your trust. If someone offering an opportunity knows a lot about you, it doesn’t mean the opportunity is real.


Scammers appeal to people’s emotions and are experienced at building trust to eventually exploit the relationship. When you develop a relationship with someone over time, it can be hurtful to think their interest in you may not be genuine. But if someone you met online eventually asks you to send or receive money, stop and think.

If you have noticed or been caught in a scam, report it to Netsafe.

Report a scam

How to avoid scams

Are you being scammed icon

Test your knowledge!

If you receive an unsolicited text from your bank or service provider asking you to provide personal information, should you give it to them?

No! If it’s unexpected it may be a scam. Stop and think, is this for real?